Wednesday, July 8, 2020
When Loyalties Collide Familial and Religious Alliances in Dr. Ogata, a Memorandum and O-Gin - Literature Essay Samples
Loyalty is a character trait which is held in high esteem throughout the world, and even people who do not explicitly value loyalty still have loyalty to certain ideas. Whether it is to people, ideas, religions, or objects, most people carry numerous loyalties to things that they care about. However, occasionally two loyalties collide with each other and become mutually exclusive with one another. This is the case in two of RyÃ «nosuke AkutagawaÃ¢â¬â¢s short stories. In both Ã¢â¬Å"Dr. Ogata, a MemorandumÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"O-GinÃ¢â¬ , characters are forced to choose between their loyalty to beliefs and loyalty to their family. Although the stories are different, by examining the similarities and differences between them such as the situation the protagonist is faced with and the bias of the narrator, one can discern AkutagawaÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs on whether loyalty to people or loyalty to religion is more important. Ã¢â¬Å"Dr. Ogata, a MemorandumÃ¢â¬ follows a woman named Shino who is a believer in the Ã¢â¬Å"KirishitanÃ¢â¬ , or Christian faith and is told from the village Doctor OgatoÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. Following the death of ShinoÃ¢â¬â¢s husband, she converted from the traditional faith system to a new faith, Christianity, much to the chagrin of those around her. She took her faith very seriously and Ã¢â¬Å"She and daughter Sato worshiped each day before a tutelary image called a Ã¢â¬ËkurusuÃ¢â¬â¢ [cross],Ã¢â¬ however, because it was contrary to the popular belief at the time, Ã¢â¬Å"soon she was disowned by her relatives and the village officials were said to be meeting frequently to discuss formally banishing her from the villageÃ¢â¬ . Aside from the scorn she received from her peers, ShinoÃ¢â¬â¢s different beliefs did not seem to cause her any significant issues until her daughter got sick. One day she approaches the narrator, Dr. Ogata, and asks him to do a pulse dia gnosis on her daughter, Sato, who is extremely sick. However, he refuses her, saying that her Ã¢â¬Å"behavior of late is truly offensive. In particular, I have heard that you often vilify the people of our village,-including me; you say that our worship of the gods and Buddha is an act of heresyÃ¢â¬ ¦If you want me to perform a pulse diagnosis, you must first renounce your faith in the Kirishitan sectÃ¢â¬ . Ogata will not help Shino or her daughter because he disagrees with their faith system. Shino then refuses him and somberly returns home to her sick daughter. However, the next day she returns to the doctor and pleads with him again to save Sato, which he again refuses unless she denounces her faith. This time, she accepts and renounces her faith, which she proved when she Ã¢â¬Å"took one of those kurusu things out of the breast of her kimono, laid it on the entryway step, and silently trod upon it three timesÃ¢â¬ . Shino was extremely loyal to her religion, however, she was also very loyal to her daughter. Therefore, when the two began to clash, she was forced to choose between the two. She chose the latter, sacrificing her religion in order to potentially save her daughter. However, when the doctor goes to help Sato, he discovers that she is too sick for him to be able to help her. He leaves, much to ShinoÃ¢â¬â¢s dismay, and Sato dies shortly after. Following this, Dr. Ogata goes past ShinoÃ¢â¬â¢s house to discover that Sato has been brought back to life by a Christian figure from a neighboring town. The story of Ogata is not the only story concerning Christianity that Akutagawa wrote. His other story that discusses Christianity is Ã¢â¬Å"O-ginÃ¢â¬ , the story of a young Christian girl named O-Gin, who lived and practiced her religion during a time in which Ã¢â¬Å"As soon as a person was discovered to be following the teachings of the heavenly lord, he was either burned at the stake or impaled on the rackÃ¢â¬ (82). O-GinÃ¢â¬â¢s parents died when she was an infant, at which point she was taken in by a Christian couple. She was then raised in this religion and was very pious. Despite it being illegal, Ã¢â¬Å"Many times O-Gin would stand in the shade of the fig tree by the well, looking up at the large crescent moon and praying with her whole heartÃ¢â¬ . However, one day she and her family were caught practicing their religion, and thus they were thrown in jail, tortured, and sentenced to be burnt at the stake. The entire time that they were being tortured, they stayed true to their religion, until they were tied to posts, about to be burned at the stake. They were given one last chance to denounce their religion, and after a pause, O-Gin decrees that she will give up her religion because her Ã¢â¬Å"parents do not know the teachings of Our Heavenly Lord, and by now they must have fallen down into inherno [hell]. It would be unforgivable of me to enter the gates of Haraiso [Heaven] without themÃ¢â¬ . Her adoptive mother then tells her husband that she will burn to death Ã¢â¬Å"not because I want to go to Haraiso, but because I want to be with you.Ã¢â¬ They both then fall from grace so that they can all go to hell together. These stories obviously have many similarities. In both stories, a person is faced with a situation in which they must decide between their religion and those that are close to them. For Shino, if she did not give up her religion then she would lose her daughter. O-Gin was put in a very similar position, wherein she was forced to either follow her religion and go to heaven but be separated from her deceased parents, or go to hell and be with her family. In both situations, they were forced to either be loyal to their religion and beliefs or to their family, they could not do both. Not only is the situation similar in both stories, but the outcome is as well. Both O-Gin and Shino choose their family over their religion, and they both have a somewhat happy ending. Therefore, if they both chose their family over their religion and it turns out relatively well for both, the stories indicate that choosing family over religion is a better choice, and thus family is more important than reli gion. Although the stories are remarkably similar, there are slight differences between the two, and one such difference is the bias of the narrator. O-GinÃ¢â¬â¢s story is narrated by a character who is not directly involved in the story and it is not very clear what their view on Christianity is. However, although it is not easy to discern the narrators view on Christianity, it is not impossible. At the beginning of the story, the narrator is discussing the prophet of the traditional religion, Shakyamuni, and says that Ã¢â¬Å"his teachings were obviously a pack of lies, and just as obvious was the enormous evil of Shakyamuni himself.Ã¢â¬ In addition to this, while discussing O-GinÃ¢â¬â¢s parents who followed the traditional religion at the time, he says that they never had the Ã¢â¬Å"opportunity to learn these truthsÃ¢â¬ because they died still believing in ShakyamuniÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings. Additionally, the narrator continually refers to the officials who persecute O-Gin and her f amily as Satan, which indicates that they not only believe in Satan, who is a Christian figure, but they believe those who block others from following Christianity to be evil. At the conclusion of the story, the narrator is discussing the outcome of the story when he says that in one account of this story, Ã¢â¬Å"Satan, overjoyed at the way things turned out, changed himself into a huge book and flew around the execution ground all night. The author of this present tale is highly skeptical: was it so great a victory for Satan as to prompt such excessive celebration?Ã¢â¬ This shows that the narrator is the author, who himself is skeptical if this story truly was a victory for Satan. This means that he does not believe that this story, in which loyalty to people is prioritized above loyalty to religion, is Ã¢â¬Å"badÃ¢â¬ in the Christian religion. Therefore, the author does not believe that choosing family over religion is wrong. In contrast to O-GinÃ¢â¬â¢s story which is narrated by a character who appears to be favorable of the Christian faith, Dr. Ogata, the narrator of the first story, is vehemently opposed to Christianity. The proof of his disdain of Christianity is the fact that he refuses to treat a potential very sick patient, Sato, who will die without his aid because he disagrees with their religion. His disapproval of the religion is also shown by his reaction to SatoÃ¢â¬â¢s resurrection. While observing this scene, he noted that Ã¢â¬Å"the spring shower produced intense thunder just as the bateran was entering this village. I take this to mean that heaven was showing its abhorrence for himÃ¢â¬ . The narrator is opposed to religion and paints this exchange in a negative light, despite the fact that he Ã¢â¬Å"had never heard of a case like SatoÃ¢â¬â¢s, in which a person who has died from cold damage disorder regains his soulÃ¢â¬ . Ogata was educated enough to be a doctor, and yet he had ne ver heard of a situation similar to SatoÃ¢â¬â¢s in which someone came back to life after dying from her disease. Therefore, it can be surmised that there is no scientific reasoning for SatoÃ¢â¬â¢s resurrection, meaning that her resurrection occurred due to her faith. Therefore, this would seem to indicate that within the canon of this story, their religion, Christianity, is correct. Additionally, despite the fact that Shino sacrificed her religion to save Sato, her religion still helped her and saved her daughter. This means that even though Shino chose her daughter over her religion, Christianity did not forsake her for it. Therefore, Christianity, would not punish Shino for sacrificing her religion to save her daughter. When viewed separately, both of these stories stand alone as interesting explorations of family and religion. However, when compared to one another, themes arise that can be used to discern the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion on certain issues, such as loyalty to family and religion. In both stories, the protagonist is forced to choose between their religion and their family. Both choose their family, and both stories work out to their favor. Additionally, the different perspective of the two narrators reveals that the decision made by the women to prioritize their family was right. Therefore, by comparing the two stories, one can see that the author, Akutagawa, believes loyalty to family to be more important than loyalty to religion.
Wednesday, July 1, 2020
This research focuses on three different dimension of Financial and management accounting. in the first part it gives a clear picture of company law and professional accounting frameworks which can be used to make financial reports of different companies comparable and reliable. Furthermore, the second given question was Discounted Cash flow and its importance for the business investment appraisal. Lastly, the third part of this research assignment is discussing the importance of profitability and liquidity and how a business can manage its working capital to reduce the risk of short term liquidity problems. An introduction to each mentioned topic is given in the following separate paragraphs. Financial statements are the sum or conclusion of the performance of a company over a specified span of time which as a result, represents a clear financial status of a company. There are different types of financial reports which are created by a company, but the major reports are: The Balance Sheet, Profit and Loss Statement and Statement of Cash flow. In order to make different companies financial report comparable there has to be a certain rules which should be followed by all companies. These rules are some forced by government in which all companies are being entitled to obey certain rules while preparing the reports. In UK, all companies must act in accordance with provisions the Companies Act 1985. In addition to company law, companies which are listed on stock exchange are required to follow Stock exchange rules and other professional accounting framework such as IFRS. (Atrill, P and Mclaney, E. 2005) Discounted cash flow is very useful techniques which are used in a wide variety of businesses. Mortgage loan are one of the best examples. Therefore, Discounted Cash flow (DCF) techniques are much preferred by the companies while making investment decisions. As an illustration, DCF analysis is a capital budgeting practice which is used to analyze and quantify the receipt and payment of a particular project or business venture. DCF methods are given preference in investment decisions because it takes in the account the importance of time value of money and amount of risk involved in acceptance of a project. (Ramagopal, C. 2008) Liquidity and profitability are equally important for existence of a company. A company which cannot pay its creditor on time or cannot meet its short term expenditures will easily become insolvent or bankrupt. On the other hand, Profitability is the amount of revenue exceed from its relevant expense. Therefore, both profitability and liquidity are equally important factor for survival of a business. Working capital is the difference between current asset and current liability. Management of working capital can reduce the risk of liquidity problems in the short run for a company. (Avadhani,V.A. 2010) Professional and Legal Regulatory Framework of Accounting (Task 1) Financial Reports and Accounting Frameworks: Financial statements are used to make fair decision by various numbers of users. Therefore, the major users of financial reports are classified into: Employees, Present and Potential Investor, Lenders, Customers, Suppliers and other trade payables, Government, and The Public. The objective of financial reports is to provide necessary and objective information about the company performance in order to allow users make sound economic decisions. (Atrill, P and Mclaney, E. 2005) Financial statements are the overall conclusion of the performance of a company over a specified span of time which as a result, represents a clear position of a company. There are various types of financial reports which are prepared by a company, but the major reports are: The Balance Sheet, Statement of Cash flow, Profit and Loss Statement, and The statement of changes in equity. (Atrill, P and Mclaney, E. 2011) UK Government Accounting Standards Untitled.png Source: Catalogue Pearsoned. 02.09.2013 In order to make different companies financial report comparable there has to be a certain rules which should be followed by all companies. These rules are some forced by government in which all companies are being entitled to obey certain rules while preparing the reports. In UK, all companies must act in accordance with provisions the Companies Act 1985 (CA 1985) which is now changed to Companies Act 2006. Under the mentioned Act, every company is entitled to present their Balance sheet and Income statement at the end of each financial year with true and clear vision. In addition, companies, under Schedule 4 of CA 1985, are further restricted to follow certain format and provide additional information by way of notes. Moreover, Companies in UK should also comply with Financial Reporting Standard and other professional guidance. And these are: Accounting Standards: these are comprised of Financial Reporting Standard (FRS) and Statement of Standard Accounting Practice (SSAPs) which have been issued and adopted by Accounting Standard Boards (ASB). Majority of companies apply these two standards. Financial Reporting Standard for Smaller Entities (FRSSE): this sum up all accounting format which UK small entities are restricted to follow. International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS): these are issued by International Accounting Standard Board (IASB). All UK Stock exchange listed companies are required to follow this standard. However, unincorporated companies are exempt from IFRS accounting regulations. Limitation of Financial Reports: Although Legal and professional accounting framework are designed to meet quality factors (Relevance, reliable, objective, and comparable), but still there are some limitations attached to financial reports which cannot be ignored. And these limitations are: Conventionalized representation: Business are different in their nature and financial reports are prepared in a highly standardized way. This can limit usefulness and comparability of information. In addition, users often find difficult to understand the component of business since financial reports are highly aggregated. This means several information is combined together and presented in a very few figures which often users struggle to find their correct path. In addition, Standards are basically general purpose which ignores to identify the difference between large and small entities. (Elliot Barry, Elliott Jamie. 2008) Adverse allocative effects: this can occur if economic consequences as a result of standard regulation are not taken into account by standard setters. For example, preparing such reports in accordance with standard may cost companies higher than their normal reporting system. Now this can affect the company profitability which can be regarded as an adverse effect. (Elliott Barry, Elliott Jamie. 2008) Backward-Looking: Users are interested in future and certainties however, financial reports are based on past events and provide information which has already affected the company. Non-Financial information: financial statements do not take into account non-financial factors. This factors could highly affect a company performance. Such as: Business risk and opportunities, Management policies, company performance and prospects analysis, and description of the business major operation. Other information: basically some companies provide additional information along with its financial report. This additional information is not always relevant to most users is most of the cases. And this could further affect objective and comparability of financial reports. Discounted Cash flow and its importance in investment decisions (TASK 2) Companies need to invest in projects in order to expand their business activities and become leader in the market by increasing their market share. Since there are various techniques which are used to analyze an investment decisions, Discounted Cash flow (DCF) techniques are much preferred by the companies while making investment decisions. In other word, DCF analysis is a capital budgeting practice which is used to analyze and quantify the receipt and payment of a particular project or business venture. DCF methods are given preference in investment decisions because it takes in the account the importance of time value of money and amount of risk involved in acceptance of a project. Time Value of Money: The concept of Time value of money is based on the fact that a pound received today has higher value than a pound received next day. Even a child prefers todayacirc;s enjoyment than waiting for tomorrow. According to Ramagopal, C. (Financial Management. 2008) there are several factors which support the concept that Money has time value. Risk and Uncertainity: there is risk and uncertainities always involved in future. Out flows are in a company control but there are is no any gurantee for future cash inflow. Thus a pound today is regarded to have higher value than a pound in future. Present Need are more important: businesses generally prefer current expenditure and consumption. Opportunity to invest: an individual or a business can invest money today so that they could gain benefit of Interest or profit as a result of their investment. Inflation: Inflation in an economy will decrease the money purchasing power. Most government have structural inflation which is fixed every year thus a pound received next year will have much less purchasing power than a pound received today. To make this concept more clear let suppose that 100 pound is invested today in a bank with a return of 10% interest rate each year. At the end of year one the interest which will be paid for initial investment is 10 pound and the total amount will be 110 pounds. Therefore the value of 110 pounds to be received after a year is equivalent to the value of 100 pound received today. Discounted cash flow are very useful techniques which is used in a wide variety of businesses. Mortgage loan are one of the best examples. Interestingly, DCF methods can also be used by Investors while purchasing companies stocks. In addition, Managers use this method to identify potential investment decisions or choose the best investment decision among several projects. The overall application of DCF methods is to convert future cash flows into present value by discounting these cash flows at the rate of company cost of capital. (Kern, Andy. 2010. The importance of DCF Valuation) For example, we purchase a 20 year debenture on the day it issued on the market at face value price. So when we purchased this debenture, in fact we invested on this company and over the period of 20 years we expect to receive an amount greater than the value we purchased. Therefore, the value of this debenture today is calculated by discounting the value of principal and interest to be received over the period of 20 years. Or in other word, the value of today debenture equal to the sum of discounted value of interest and principal payment it will make over the 20 years. Advantages of Discounted Cash Flow It can be used to identify the value of a business as whole or also it can be used to determine the value of a specific project or component of a business that can be added to the overall value of business after conducting certain investments. It is simple and easy to calculate and understand. But it can be modified to deal with complex structure. In addition, both equity shareholders and investor can use this model to appraise investment. Investor can use DCF techniques to discount the value of shares or debenture in to current amount and calculate the amount of interest they earn over period of time. Meanwhile, companies can also use DCF method to evaluate investment decisions and make proper and sound investment in projects so that the value of the company is encouraged if the NPV or IRR is greater than cost of capital. Profitability VS Liquidity and Working Capital Management to Reduce Liquidity Problems (Task 3) Liquidity and its importance for business survival: Liquidity is generally referred to the ability of an entity to meet its short term obligation or in other word the ability of a company to convert assets into cash. The term short term is basically known as those obligation which matures within one year period of time. Short term is also sometimes regarded as operating cycle: buying, manufacturing, selling and collecting. Liquidity is very much equally important for existence of a company. A company which cannot pay its creditor on time or cannot meet its short term expenditures will easily become insolvent or bankrupt. Moreover, companies operation and reputation will be in huge danger if the firm is unable to meet its short term obligation. Lack of sufficient cash on hand may affect company to lose some incentives from suppliers which will result in higher cost of goods or services. Thus, higher cost will result in less amount of turnover and profit. Therefore, companies always consider liquidity as an important factor and they always try to retain sufficient amount of liquidity. Nevertheless, there is not any standard procedure with regard to company liquidity requirement but mostly it depends on nature of business, location of the business, scale of operation and so on. (Avadhani,V.A. 2010) Liquidity is one of the major concerns for users while making any sort of deal with the company. Every stakeholder is interested in companies which has higher liquidity. Suppliers will only deal with the company when they know that their money will be received in specified time and the company is able to provide money for their good and services provided. Shareholders are interested in profitability, however they know higher liquidity will give the company the opportunity to get incentives from suppliers which will result in lower cost of goods and services and finally higher profit and dividend or capital gain. Lastly, Bank and other financial institutions always consider companies liquidity position before signing any sort of contract or loan agreement. The liquidity position of a company can easily be understood by looking at it financial statements. Current asset and current liability are the areas which locate the company liquidity position. In order to understand the liquidity position of a company, a number of ratios can be used. These majors are Current Ratio and Quick Ratio. (Singh, Y.P. 2007) Profitability and its Importance for business survival: Profitability is the amount of revenue exceed from its relevant expense. Generally both profitability and liquidity are equally important factor for survival of a business. However in the short run a business need to be liquid enough to proceed with its operation but in the long run profitability comes into consideration. Business which are not profitable in the long run will just simply become insolvent. There is an inverse relationship between profitability and liquidity. The higher profitability the less liquid will be the company. This can best described in the following example: If the asset side of a company balance sheet is arranged in a sequence of liquidity, we will get the following order. So if we see the above order, as we go from top to bottom the liquidity decreases. However, profitability is totally vice versa. Fixed assets are more profitable for the companies as compare to receivables, securities and cash. Higher liquidity will result in lower risk and lower profit. However, lower liquidity will result in higher risk and higher return. As a result, there is a trade off between profitability and liquidity. Therefore, the role of managers become more dominant to set certain targets which could achieve both partially so that the business can maximize its profit while meeting its obligation successfully. Working Capital Management to reduce risk of Liquidity problems: Working capital is the difference between current asset and current liability. And this helps us to understand the position of a company from liquidity point of view. Based on the above definition, working capital of a company can take one of the following forms. Positive working capital: current asset is greater than current liability Negative working capital: current asset is less than current liability Zero working capital: when current asset equals current liability It is generally accepted that higher the positive working capital, better will be the firm liquidity position.Furthermore, managing working capital is not just related to current asset and current liability but it also relies on fixed assets and long term funds. (Satyaprasad, B.G. Raghu, G.A. 2010) Factors which determine working capital: There are various factors which determine the amount or level of working capital for a particular business. These factors are positioned in the following diagram:11.png Source: Satyaprasad, B.G. Raghu, G.A. 2010 Financing of Working Capital and Liquidity: Once the size of working capital is determined, then the management of the company need to decide the financing of working capital. There are three major policies to finance working capital called conservative policy (Approach A), Average policy (Approach B), and Aggressive policy (Approach C). If a company invest huge amount of money on current asset rather than fixed asset then it is considering conservative approach. Similarly, if the business invest average in current asset then it follows Average working capital approach. Finally, if the business is investing very less on current asset or in other word, business consider its focus on investing heavily on fixed assets then it said to be Aggressive policy or approach. These approaches are best described in the following diagram. (Satyaprasad, B.G. Raghu, G.A. 2010)1212.png Source: Satyaprasad, B.G. Raghu, G.A. 2010 Working capital management is also referred to operating efficiency. It all about How efficient the management of a firm could manage its inventory, receivable and payables to reduce short term liquidity problems. The best operating firms never want to have inventory sitting idly in a warehouse for months or years, and at the same time they never run out of product when it comes to selling point of view. Companies are on buying products, raw material from suppliers on credit term and the more the period available to pay off its debt for a company, the lesser liquidity problems will arise. Similarly, companies sell products or services to customer. The period of time the company receive their money from customer also have a huge impact on the liquidity of a firm. Therefore, Companies need to consider several ratios such as Inventory turnover, payable turnover, and receivable turnover in order to reduce the risk of liquidity. Nevertheless, operating efficiency and ratio analysis reduce the liquidity problems in short period of time. (Money-Zine. 07.02.2013) REFRENCES Atrill Peter, McLaney Eddie. (2011). Financial Accounting for decision Makers, sixth edition. Published by Pearson Education Limited Avadhani, V.A. (2010). International Financial Management. Management of Longterm International Financing. Published by. Himalaya Publishing House Catalogue Pearsoned. Accounting Rules and Regulation. Accessed by 02.09.2013. followed by https://catalogue.pearsoned.co.uk/assets/hip/gb/hip_gb_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/Dysonch2.pdf Elliott. B and Elliott. J. (2008). Financial Accounting and Reporting 12th Edition. Finch Clare. (2008). A studentacirc;s guide to International Financial Reporting Standards Second Edition. Published by: Kaplan Publishing UK Kern Andy. (2010). Transparent Value See the Market Clearly. The Importance of Discounted Cash Flow Valuation. Retrieved from https://www.rbpinstitute.com/PDFs/how-is-rbp-used/The%20Importance%20of%20Discounted%20Cash%20Flow%20Valuation.pdf Money-Zine. Effeciency Ratios. Accessed by: 07.02.2013. followed by: https://www.money-zine.com/Investing/Investing/Efficiency-Ratios/ Satyaprasad, B.G. Raghu, G.A. (2010). Advanced Financial Management. Working Capital Management. Published by Hamalaya Publishing House Sharma, S.P. (2008). Advanced Financial Management : Modern Methods and Techniques. Published by Paradise Publisher Singh, Y.P. (2007). Accounting and Financial Management for I.T. professionals. Published by New Age International. Pp 120-130. Ramagopal, C. (2008). Financial Management. Published by New Age International Bibliography: Desai, Vasant. (2009). Financial Markets and Financial Services. Published by: Himalaya Publishing House Financing Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (2008): An Independent Evaluation of IFCs Experience with Financial Intermediaries in Frontier Countries. International Financial Corporation. Published by World Bank publication. Gordon, E. Natarajan, K. (2010). Financial Markets. Published by Himalaya Publishing House Koutmos, Gregory. (2007). European Financial Markets. Published by: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd Smith, Barry. (2010). Introductory Financial Accounting. Published by: Open University Press. Temte, Andrew. (2005). Financial Statement Analysis. Published by: Dearborn Trade, A Kaplan Professional Company
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
There are many various conditions and diseases affecting the endocrine system. Here we will discuss several and describe the endocrine gland, hormone, target tissue, symptoms, causes, and treatment options. The human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test is done to check for the hormone hCG in blood or urine (Staff, 2012). The hCG hormone is made during pregnancy by the placenta or can be abnormally made by certain tumors. The hCG test can be performed to test if a woman is pregnant or not, as part of a screening test for birth defects, in a woman who may have abnormal tissue growth in her uterus, a molar pregnancy, or a cancer in the uterus rather than a normal pregnancy. HCG levels can even be measured in a man to see whether he hasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Later it was discovered that anabolic steroids could facilitate the growth of skeletal muscle which led to abuse by bodybuilders, weightlifters, and athletes in other sports. Abuse of anabolic steroids can cause acne, breast de velopment in men, heart attacks, and liver cancer. Most side effects are reversible if the abuser stops taking the drugs, but some are permanent, such as voice deepening in females. Possible health consequences for men are infertility, shrinking of the testicles, and male-pattern baldness while with women enlargement of the clitoris, and excessive growth of body hair can happen. It can affect the musculoskeletal cardiovascular system, liver, skin, cause infection, and have psychiatric effects such as rage, aggression, mania, and delusions. Treatment of anabolic steroid abuse uses medications to restore the hormonal system after its disruption, and medication to target specific withdrawal symptoms. To reduce the risk of ovarian or breast cancer some choose to have a procedure done known as an oophorectomy. This is a removal of your ovaries on each side of your uterus that contain eggs and secrete the hormones that control your reproductive cycle. This greatly reduces the amount of h ormones estrogen and progesterone circulating in your body which is the hormones breast and ovarian cancers need to grow. Though a generally safe procedure with small risk complicationsShow MoreRelatedPG: Case Study592 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesPG: Case study Key performance gaps In 2005, the renowned pharmaceutical giant PG was restructured into three interdependent global organizations, one organized by product category, one by geography, and one by business processes. During its earlier history, the company had been quite successful in generating synergy between knowledge and best practices. 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Pamp;G sells shampoos, baby care products, medicine and food etc. It not only diversified the product range but also the product width. Therefore, Pamp;G has several brands under one single category but aimed with different customer segments. Pamp;G is also famous for its innovative andRead MoreCase Study: PGs Adoption of Web-Based EDC913 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCase Huckman, R., Cotteleer, M. (2006). Proctor and Gamble: Electronic Data Capture and Clinical Trial Management. Harvard Business School 9-606-033. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press. Overview This case considers the organizational question of whether Proctor Gamble Pharmaceuticals should adopt web-based electronic data capture (EDC) as the default standard for the management of clinical drug trials. The study provides a broad overview of the existing process and asks how informationRead MoreExcess Fluid Problem: Medical Case Study of Mr P811 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesCase Study #2 Mr. PÃ¢â¬â¢s problem is excess fluid volume; he needs to remain free of edema, moist crackles throughout lung fields, and labored breathing as soon as possible. Mr. P should be assessed for abnormal heart and lung sounds as well as blood pressure and pulse. He will also need to be given oxygen. There must be close monitoring of his intake as well as output noting signs showing decreasing urine output in relation to overload. It is important to measure these trends because Mr. P has fluidRead MoreExploratory Case Study. Capus P. Barnett . Valdosta State1946 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Exploratory Case Study Capus P. Barnett Valdosta State University Introduction The clients involved in this case study is an African-American 12-year-old boy ,30-year-old mother and 33-year-old father. I have been assigned to work with the 12-year-old regarding his issues with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anger issues, mood disorder, and oppositional defiance disorder. My agency has created several goals for the client to achieve while receiving services such as mastering
Introduction: The background statement of effective management within an organization involves looking into the certain areas of management so that the system of the organization improves. The main purpose for this is that it will help organization to earn more profit and employees will be willing to work. The plan for the essay involves looking into the four areas of management. The four areas that need to be looked by the management involves total quality management, ethical behavior and corporate social responsibility, environment and culture and customer relationship. During the planning stage of management, there is a tendency of the managers to involve strengths and the opportunities in the market. The aim of the manager needs to be clear so that the goals of the organization can be achieved. There are organizational effectiveness is far more than ability of the company to make sales. The focus will be on the effectiveness in the short-term areas and in the corporate culture talent manageme nt, innovation, engagement and communication. The effective management will help in motivating the worker and creates a direction for the organization to help communicate the vision externally and internally (Barros, Gal and Kindler 2012). All the phases of the modern organization are well managed by a good manager. In the society without the existence of the managers, it is quite impossible for the organizations to survive. The main resource for the developing countries is theShow MoreRelatedHuman Resource Management ( Hrm ) Concepts1429 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHuman resource management (HRM) concepts are strongly tied to management effectiveness as well as an organizations overall success. In this report the author will examine the importance of a strong human resource department and how that influences the day-to-day running of the business. Ã¢â¬Å"Increasingly, what makes organizations effectiveness is how they organize staff and manage their human capital. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important f or organizations to have the right amount of financial capital and hard assets, butRead MoreOrganizational Effectivness1211 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOrganizational Effectiveness Rita Goforth March 10, 2014 CJA/474 Professor Mathew Workman Introduction Organizational effectiveness can mean many things for different organizations, from making sales to managing employees and even time and data management. Within the criminal justice organization it is much more important than just making sure the criminal justice agency is merely operating properly. Achieving and maintaining efficient productivity, performance values, and efficiencyRead More Organizational Behavior Terminology And Concepts Essay975 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUnderstanding organizational behavior is important for everyone involved in an organization, not just the leadership and management teams. By gaining and understanding this knowledge each employee should be able to realize how their individual actions contribute to the big picture of the company. In order to understand this there are some key concepts and terminology that must be explained to make the learning process more manageable. Organizational Behavior What is organizational behavior? AccordingRead MoreManagerial Effectiveness: A Concise Definition803 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagescompetitive business environment, the relevance of effective leadership cannot be overstated. That is, with the world fast becoming a global village, organizations should ideally have effective leaders at the helm so as to remain relevant. In this text, I concern myself with managerial effectiveness. Managerial Effectiveness: A Concise Definition In basic terms, managerial effectiveness can be taken to be the achievement of the desired organizational goals, results as well as objectives by tapingRead MorePfizer Case Study1484 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesQuestion 1: Describe and evaluate what Pfizer is doing? Pfizer is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest research-based pharmaceuticals firm and also a well known Pharmaceutical company. So their most of the work depends on research, developing Strategies and innovate. They were trying to find a new way of system which makes their Work more effective and efficient. Pfizer find out that their worker spends more time on Business research and data analysis to the creation of documents and other routine Support likeRead MoreSignificance Of Strategic Value Within Organizations Success922 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmodern day organization, the need of practical and strategic value holds a tremendous weight in organizations. In certain scenarios, improvement within organizations can be undesirable. While examining both, practical and strategic value holds specific requirements ultimately helping product quality results. The significance in both creates necessary guidelines on aligning proper etiquette within organizations. In 2007, the author tom McKaskill defined the significance of strategic value within organizationsRead MoreAnalysis Of Organizational Management During The United States Military1545 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnalysis of Organizational Management in the United States Military Throughout history, the theory of what constitutes effective management practice has evolved with the changes and advances in technology and society. However, there are basic principles of each theory that have either influenced contemporary theory or are overtly used in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s organizations. For example, the United States military overall ascribes to a classical organizational theory of management with an emphasis on transactionalRead MoreSuccessful Law Enforcement Agency Management1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDrucker) An effective manager can be the difference between a successful law enforcement organization or its failure. There are several theories on effective management in law enforcement and the business world alike. Some of those theories can cross over and be helpful for a law enforcement manager. A manager can have the knowledge of all theory relative to law enforcement management, but without understanding several key concepts, the manager will in turn not be effect ive. An effective law enforcementRead MoreOrganizational Development ( Od )1130 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOrganizational development (OD) refers to a process of enhancing personal and organizational change, and increasing the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness by using interventions that are driven by behavioral and social science knowledge (Brown and Harvey 2011).The main aim of organizational development in any given organization is to bring change that will drive the organization towards attaining effectiveness in its operations. Organizations need to change in order to become more productive, satisfyingRead MoreSupervisory Roles And Theories Of Motivation1370 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesable to motivate, encourage and empower members of their organization. In the management of Human Service programs, a supervisor has various roles that he or she must function within. In doing so, there are key supervisory processes that are influenced by theories of motivation. This paper discusses the roles of a supervisor who draws on empowerment, as well as, discusses theories of motivation used to achieve organizational effectiveness. Additionally, this paper will discuss the Human Resource
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Summary of Antigone Ã¢â¬Å"AntigoneÃ¢â¬ is a tragedy made by the author Sophocles. Antigone starts out in Thebes in a post-war atmosphere. There was a war between two brothers for the crown of Thebes. The two brothers kill each other on the battle field resulting in one of the brothers receiving the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s love and the other being labeled as a traitor to Thebes Ã¢â¬Å"Both brothers were killed in Battle.Ã¢â¬ Creon, the new king of Thebes, has decided because of Polyneices betrayal he shall not receive a soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s death, which is against the will of the gods, while his brother will receive full honor for his bravery on the battlefield. Ã¢â¬Å"Polyneices, I say, is to have no burial: no man is to touch him or say the least prayer, he shall lay on the plain,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Antigone and Ismene both grew up in the higher class because of their relatives. Ã¢â¬Å"Antigone and Ismene enter from the central door of the palace.Ã¢â¬ Sophocles also helped in the political system of Greece. Ã¢â¬Å"In 443 B.C. the great Athenian leader appointed Sophocles a treasurer.Ã¢â¬ Creon was in charge of the political system in Greece because he was the king and he had to make sure everything was in place. SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ dad was an important man, he Ã¢â¬Å"was a wealthy weapons maker and a leading citizen.Ã¢â¬ Haemon had an important dad as well, Creon, who was the ruler of all of Thebes. Sophocles was in the military of Greece, he was appointed the rank of General and he led the military to battles. Ã¢â¬Å"In 440 BC. Sophocles served as a general in the siege of Samos.Ã¢â¬ Polyneices and Eteocles were both leaders in a military war against each other and they both killed each other in combat. Sophocles has been inside a war within the military. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ During the crucial Peloponnesian war, Sophocles conducted negotiations with Athenian allies.Ã¢â¬ AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s brothers were both inside a war when Polyneices was trying to take back the throne. Sophocles was very competitive when he was trying to win first place in any competition relating to plays. Ã¢â¬Å"Athens held a dramatic competition every year, at the festival of DionysusÃ¢â¬ ¦ Sophocles won first prize at the Festival of Dionysus 18 times, frequently over such competitorsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Some of SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ plays won second prize Ã¢â¬â Oedipus the king, for example-butShow MoreRelatedBiography of Sophocles Essay1496 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBiography of Sophocles Sophocles was born near Athens, in the small town of Colonus, around 495 BC. His ninety-year life span coincided with the rise and fall of the Athenian Golden age. The son of Sophillus, a wealthy armor maker, Sophocles was provided with the best traditional aristocratic education available in Athens (Page 3). Very little is known about Sophocles as a youth, although one public record suggests his participation in Ã¢â¬Å"The Chorus of Youths,Ã¢â¬ chosen to celebrate the Athenian navalRead MoreComparison And Contrast Of The Understanding Of Love1576 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescannot survive without the virtue of love. As I Previously said, the understanding of love varies from one individual to the other; it can be verified through the PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s symposium and Antigone play. This paper tries to highlight the PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s and Sophocles understanding of love. Sophocles understanding of love Sophocles tries to show us the goodness of love. He stipulates that one feels incomplete without love. He further says that love makes people feel attracted to each other and they always feelRead MoreThe Ancient Greek Of Ancient Greece1690 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand the personnel to help them develop and bring out various themes in their plays. It will further talk about on how these dramatists manipulated the physical, cultural, political, and the verbal settings to present their different themes. The ancient Greek had a rich culture. Their political, religious, and social institutions were very strong. There are several elements of these cultural aspects that can be seen in both the Antigone and the Bacchae. Various stagecraft materials and elements alsoRead Moretheme of alienation n no where man by kamala markandeya23279 Words Ã |Ã 94 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ANTIGONE KEY LITERARY ELEMENTS SETTING This tragedy is set against the background of the Oedipus legend. It illustrates how the curse on the House of Labdacus (who is the grandson of Cadmus, founder of Thebes, and the father of Laius, whose son is Oedipus) brought about the deaths of Oedipus and his wife-mother, Jocasta, as well as the double fratricide of Eteocles and Polynices. Furthermore, Antigone dies after defying King Creon. The play is set in Thebes, a powerful city-state north of Read MoreDeath By Sophocles And The Holy Bible953 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDeath is a very popular theme in world literature; authors seem to feed off the anguish it causes readers. However, there are many types of deaths from many different eras. For example, in its broadest sense death has two forms homicide and suicide. Homicide for instance, dates all the way back to the two earliest works of literature known to man; The Epic of Gilgamesh and The Holy Bible. Suicide is also ancient, but has a much darker feel to it. Despite death being universal throughout time, thereRead MoreThe Tragic Criteria Present in Antigone by Sophocles861 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA tragic story has its own occur of events. The main factors that always end a tragedy is through conspiracies, love, or hatred. In the story Antigone written by Sophocles, it demonstrates a tragedy filled with consequences to the characters. Antigone shows similarities to Ari stotleÃ¢â¬â¢s paradigm because of the plot, characterization, and actions that were pursued throughout this story. In AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Poetics, he puts his view of how a tragedy should be portrayed to make the concept of it more understandableRead MoreComparison Of Euripides Antigone And Lysistrata1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesso diverse all because of one aspect they both contain but differ in. Written during the 5th century in ancient Athens. Antigone and Lysistrata both are two important, popular plays that contain a main character that was female. Although they can both be seen as very similar, they do differ in many ways. The most important difference between Antigone and Lysistrata is that Antigone has a community that does not approve of the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s plans and although they feel sympathy for her, they takeRead MoreSophocles Antigone By Sophocles1892 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAntigone Ã¢â¬ ¢ Title: Antigone by Sophocles Ã¢â¬ ¢ Genre: Play; Tragic drama Ã¢â¬ ¢ Historical context: Written circa, 442 B.C.E. in Athens Greece. Performed circa, 441 B.C.A. Its literary period was classical. While Antigone was the first written of SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ three Theban plays, it was the last of the trilogy. It was performed during a time of national unrest. Sophocles was appointed to serve as a general in a military crusade against Samos. The significance of the historical events during that timeRead MoreA Doll House by Henrik Ibsen7379 Words Ã |Ã 30 Pagesperson in his life (Cliffsnotes). Moreover, an article written by R. M. Adams explains: Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll House represents a woman imbued with the idea of becoming a person, but it proposes nothing categorical about women becoming people; in fact, itsÃ¢â¬â¢ real theme has nothing to do with the sexesÃ¢â¬ ( qtd. in Meyer 1136). In addition, Einar Haugen, the doyen of American Scandinavian studies, insisted that, Ã¢â¬Å"IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s Nora is not just a woman arguing for female liberation; she is much more. She embodies the comedyRead MoreThe Sonnet Form: William Shakespeare6305 Words Ã |Ã 26 Pagesenjoyed a number of revivals and periods of renewed interest. In Elizabethan EnglandÃ¢â¬âthe era during which ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s sonnets were writtenÃ¢â¬âthe sonnet was the form of choice for lyric poets, particularly lyric poets seeking to engage with traditional themes of love and romance. (In addition to ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s monumental sequence, the Astrophel and Stella sequence by Sir Philip Sydney stands as one of the most important sonnet sequences of this period.) Sonnets were also written during the height of classical
The topic of prostitution has been widely debated across history. While many see working as a prostitute as a viable career option and a right that all legal consenting adults should have, many other see it as a dangerous and degrading profession that creates both a sexualized and crime-breeding environment. The governments of Scotland, the United Kingdom, and the United States have all generally taken stances that address prostitution in strict manner. While the approaches by which the US, the UK, and Scotland do respond to prostitution are quite different, all three governments seem to share a similar desire---to maintain the safety of the general public. This concern for the safety of each country s citizens can be seen through theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Clients are the individuals who pay to have sex with the prostitutes. Ã¢â¬Å"JohnsÃ¢â¬ are a common term for the male clients of the sex industry. Due to the fact that there are significantly more male clients than femal e clients, there has been very little research on female clients, and there is no specific slang term for them. A Ã¢â¬Å"brothelÃ¢â¬ is a house in which clients go to have sex with prostitutes (Ã¢â¬Å"Definition of BrothelÃ¢â¬ ). At the beginning of the 20th century prostitution was legal throughout the United States, but in 1910 the United States Congress passed the Mann Act. The Mann Act banned all interstate transportation of women for the purpose of selling of sex. The goal of this act was to prevent human trafficking, but it obviously also impacted the legal sex industry as well (R.W.A.). Prostitution still existed throughout the United States after Mann Act was created, but in 1915 most states had voted to criminalize prostitution (Jenkins). While there are federal laws pertaining to prostitution, the legalization and criminalization of prostitution is an issue that is voted upon by state governments. When prostitution affects international issues (such as the national or international transportation of people for the purpose of selling sex, or if prostitution is found on federal property, it is an issue that the federal government handles. State governments regulate laws on legalizing prostitution and choosing punishments for those involved inShow MoreRelatedThe Stigma Of Prostitution, And Sexual Slavery1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Feminists are concerned whether or not a prostitute controls her own sexual identity. Others believe prostitution is degrading, and sexual slavery towards woman while someone like Martha Nussbaum, believe its not threatening a woman anymore more than any other paid job. Where do you stand when it comes to prostitution? Personally IÃ¢â¬â¢m concerned with the moral factors and the harm it brings to women both physically and mentally. Throughout this paper I will examine the issues and questions whichRead MoreProstitution and Ethical Values Related to It954 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesProstitution and Ethical Values related to it Introduction Prostitution can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"The act or practice of engaging in sexual intercourse for money,Ã¢â¬ and is usually provided as an underground service. A person who works in this field is called a prostitute, and is a kind of sex worker. Prostitution is one of the branches of the sex industry. The legal status of prostitution varies from country to country, from being permissible but unregulated, to an enforced or unenforced crimeRead MoreThe Untold Story : Legalization Of Prostitution1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Untold Story: Legalization of Prostitution The legalization of prostitution is a matter long overdue because it would have a positive impact on the economy, set programs in place to improve quality of life for the victims/workers of the industry, and provide educative resources to bring awareness to the youth about the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s oldest profession. Not a lot of light is shed on prostitution, let alone the sex industry in a state like Nevada where it is legal in 8 counties nor that up to the lateRead MoreShould Prostitution Be Legalized?1868 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesin this country, individuals take up jobs that provides a service that society deems a necessary need, whether that profession be a doctor, teacher, engineer, labor worker, or prostitute. All of these jobs exist in the United States; however, all of them except prostitution is legal and are equipped with rights and rules (Nussbaum 669). The only law that exists concerning prostitution is the one that outlaws it. Its legislation is due to the nasty stigma people ha ve towards it since it is believedRead MoreShould the United States Legalize Prostitution? Essay1148 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesProstitution in its legal sense is defined as sexual intercourse of some kind in exchange for some kind of payment, usually money (Adriaenssens and Hendrickx 665; Perer 826).As of 2013, there are an estimated 1 million to 2 million prostitutes active in the world wide sex work industry today (Adriaenssens and Hendrickx 666). Prostitution is illegal in the United States; however, many experts think that should change. Most European and Asian countries have legalized prostitution (AgustÃ n 74). SomeRead MoreProstitution Paper2092 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesA Look at Lars Ericsson: Charges Against Prostitution Lars Ericsson proves his conclusion that prostitution is morally unobjectionable through three separate premises. The first is It is morally unobjectionable for a consumer to purchase nonsexual services from a supplier in a free exchange on an open marker. Ericsson intends morally unobjectionable to mean that there is no moral reason to object to a certain service. A free exchange is one in which both parties agree upon a certain serviceRead MoreAnalysis of Bells Opinion on Prostitution1609 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesshould also have the right to sell their sexual services if they freely choose to do so. Although sex work has always received a lot of criticism from the society that we live in but according to Bell (2009) rather than looking as sex work as degrading and unrespectable it should be treated as a work of any other kind. It is Bells (2009) opinion the sex work doesnt necessarily have to be harmful to the women. Bell (2009) believes that in a society where there are rules and laws to protect theRead MorePoverty And Its Effects On Africa1951 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesjourneys not only showed us the many varying cultures but also the many different occupations of the impoverished, such as begging, bottle collecting, and prostitution, each of which comes with their own trials and tribulations. The occupations which will be discussed in depth in this paper will be prostitution. As defined by the Prostitution Control Act 1994, Ã¢â¬Å"means the provision by one person to or for another person (whether or not of a different sex) of sexual services in return for paymentRead MoreProstitution As A Form Of Survival1755 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthrough their head, well that is just a stereotype. Prostitution is known as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s oldest profession, and today it takes many forms, from dangerous street walking to luxury brothels. Prostitution is the exchange of sexual acts for money, food, rent, drugs, or other material goods. In summary, women and men, prostitute themselves when they grant sexual access for money, gifts, or other payment and in so doing use their body in commodity. Prostitution is a complex system throughout the world. EconomicRead MoreThe Realm Of Sociology, By George Herbert Mead1466 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessociological concept to learn. There are so many perspectives in this field because society teaches us so many new things everyday. They impact our worldview and how we view, respond, and react to every experience. Prostitution is a big topic of discussion when it comes to deviance. Prostitution is deviant because it falls outside the norms of human sexuality. It is the practice or occupation of engaging in sexual activity with someone for payment. According to society, it is viewed as dysfunctional behavior
Question: Write about the Moral Theory forPhilosophy. Answer: Introduction The word theory is a Greek verb which means to contemplate. Scholars have not agreed on some fine details about its definition but they seem to be having an understanding on its basic definition. They suggest that it is an explanationof phenomena considering how it relates with various factors in context to describe or foretell happenings. Demystifying the term further,(Hegel, Houlgate 2008)explains this complex principle as a cluster of interconnected simplifications illustrating new findings which can be simplified to give a description or foretell a phenomenon. There are various theories that attempt to explain the existence of various phenomena. This piece of work will focus onnormative theories. These theories are studied under the branch of ethics called normative ethics. This is the branch that studies ethical action. It deals with a group of questions that come up when determining how an individual should behave in a moral way. The most classical theories in this category would be the utilitarianism, Ethical Egoism, Kantian, Social Contract and Virtue theories. TheUtilitarianism and Kantian theories will form the basis of this piece of work. The society is composed of people of varying characters. There are those who are out- going, others conservative, attention seekers, those who want to just be heard and never seen. This is to mean that a system to bring stability should be improvised. Certain standards to govern the sanity of the society need to be put in place. This calls for endorsement of correct moralsaiming at ensuring that all God's creatures live together in harmony.To ensure sanity of the society, (Hinman 2014) emphasizes on the results and not just the nice intents. To begin with, utilitarianism is a philosophy in which upholds the pleasure of the largest population of a community is taken as the best way out. This principle an act as correct if the end results brings pleasure. It further suggests that human beings ought to act on that which brings the highest inner value to all human beings. Additionally, a connection ofa behavior with a joyful and unjoyful consequence is determined by circumstance.Mill emphasizes that there is no moral principle or absolute standard necessary under this ethical principle. This theory was first propounded by two scholars,John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) and another English philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). Bentham, who was the second proponent of this theory, supposed that people ought to intensify the total amount of pleasure in the universe, (Durant 1926). Pleasure in this context refers to that awesome feeling that is felt when a state of deficiency is replaced by satisfaction. They suggested that the moral worth of an actis examined by the input to general use in attaining the highest level of pleasure among human beings. This is to mean that Millers Principle begins with the internal pleasure that is considered valuable. The aim of this particular theory is to offer a commanding revelation of moral life, one that has a possibility of reducingor eliminating disagreement. This theory is the morally demanding principle which requires that an individual puts aside his own selfish interest for the sake of the majority. It also demands that one does the most to maximize the utility. In regard to this theory, G.E Moore, emphasized the need to uphold values such as knowledge, justice, freedom and beauty. He proposed that the world would definitely be an enhanced place if these values were upheld. For him, this would ensure the greater good of the society at large. Utilitarianism can either be ACT or RULE. When making a decision based on this theory, Act Utilitarianism would factor in the consequences of every act and take into consideration utility every time it performed. Rule utility on the other hand would look at results of individuals following a specific rule and decided the repercussions of adopting it or leaving it out. Kantian theory was propounded by a German scholar Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). He was among the strong opponent of Utilitarianism. The theory suggests all people should follow a given standard .He adds that this is an ethical set typically and is not different depending on the specific conditions. He further adds that an action is morally acceptable it is of benefit to the whole universe. Immanuel does not focus on the majority of the population concerned; he takes into consideration the entire population unlike Miller who says that an action is right when it benefits the majority of the people in the population. Kant insists on a given set standard of behavior. Miller on the other side has no defined set standard of behavior. The correct standard of behavior is determined by the situation. Kants morality postulates thepresence of sensible persons. He believes ina society of independent, balancedindividuals have self-worth and internal worth, and is taken to be absolutely in charge of the decisions in the making the general law. For Kant, there are certain types of actions that by principle are absolutely uncalled for and by standards are condemned for being wrong. These kinds of actions include murder, theft, lying, corruption which has become rampant in most institutions. Kant is categorical that whether or not these actions or activities bring happiness to the greater populations, the principle governing Kantian theory categorically puts them as wrong and prohibited. The guiding questions to making an ethical decision under Kants normative theory is: Would I purposefully want everyone to behave as I wish to behave? If the answer is NO, then that particular action should not be undertaken. The second question to consider when dealing with the Kantian theory would be whether or not ones behavior respects the objectives of the people other than an individuals own selfish needs. If the answer is NO, then that action would not be appropriate for that given situation. Utilitarianism and Kantian theories have over the years been used to explain behavior. They have on numerous occasions been used to determine how to behave in a given situation. They help to determine the ethics. (David Resnik 2015) ethics are the norms of conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior. These two theories have different ways of determining whether an action done is correct or wrong. They give a basis on how to determine what is ethical in a given situation. At any one given time, a situation may occur and the determinants of the correct decision have to take into consideration which of the Normative theories to use to benefit to the larger population. This however does not mean that these theories exist in isolation. Though they have huge variations and weakness, they complement each other. The benefits of one given theory may be the demerits of the other, but if the two are used in unison then the outcome is for the greater good of the society. The scenario below will be applied to practically give an understanding of the two normative theories. It is during the December festivities and the entire country is in a celebratory mood. This includes a lot of eating and making merry. At this moment, a widower who has a kid looks at the kid and is guilty that he cannot offer him food let alone the many gifts to be opened on Boxing Day. He has been ill and has therefore nothing. This man hails from a background of abject. He is feeling sickly, but has to make an effort to give to his child on this big day. He had been very observant and tactic. He spotted a hen that roams around and decided today was the day to go harvest it. Apparently the hen belongs to a family that is filthy rich and might not take note that one of their chicken are missing. So this day, he comes back and makes that special meal that he shares with his son. In the above case scenario, we would find instances where either of the two theories would be used to fill in the portion of the other so as to make the most appropriate moral or ethical judgment. In this case, Kantian theory whose fundamental rational principle is the categorical imperative, suggests that one ought to behave in spite of their goals but considering what everyone else would consider right. Kant is categorical in his argument, in the above instance; he would judge the situation as wrong and unacceptable code of conduct because first and foremost, the man stole. Even taking into consideration that this man stole the chicken from a filthy rich family, bottom-line is that taking what does not belong to you, is stealing and judging by Kants categorical imperative, this mans actions are unacceptable and therefore punishable by the relevant authorities. If Millers theory is applied in this case, it would consider that the man who stole the chicken stole from a filthy rich family to as to feed his child who perhaps had not been eaten for the past few days. In this situation, there are three parties: the owner of the chicken, the dad(thief) and the hungry child. Utilitarian theory in this case would not find the actions of the Thief in question as unacceptable. This is because the theory looks out for the joy and delight of the largest number. Utilitarianism theory would look at the consequences of stealing the chicken. It would take into consideration that these children have not had a meal for the past couple of days and the father stole just a single chicken which might go unnoticed. Considering the rule Utilitarianism, and having Kantian theory at the back of the mind, it is wrong to steal. However, Utilitarianism would take into consideration that this chicken might have been hit and died in other circumstances. It would therefore commend the dad for rescuing it and utilizing it to the advantage of his child. His action would be justifies even if the Act Utilitarianism was to be considered. From the above scenario, it is clear that the two theories can be used to fill up the missing part of each other. This is because the society needs to be stable to prosper, The rich require the poor and vice versa. If this does not happen then the society is unbalanced and so many problems face such a society and chances of development diminish. Combining the use of these two theories would mean that the society is called out to share. Those with surplus ought to be generous; they should not throw away food. Those not financially privileged should also make effort to see that at least they are able to provide something. Then this kind of cooperation would ensure continued development of a society. It would mean stability not because there are no moral issues but because people understand the essence of each and every one and that for growth, all people are required to do a collective job. There is progress in unity; there are also better moral standards in making judgment through considering more than one theory to make the right judgment for a given situation. References Brody, Baruch A. 1988. Moral Theory and Moral Judgments in Medical EthicsDordrecht:SpringerNetherlands. https://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=3102991. Buckingham, Will. 2011. The philosophy book. 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